standard

Butterfly Larvae For Sale



butterfly larvae for sale

The Importance of Conservation of Traditional Native Crops and Crop Related Diversity During the Second Green Revolution

The Importance of Conservation of Traditional Native Crops and Crop related diversity during the Second Green Revolution

By Dr. Ashok Panigrahi, formerly Principal Investigator, UGC Maj. Res. Proj. Org. Farming Project Director, Navdanya Project- Sustainable Development of Ecosystems in Orissa, Bls.

Any discussion on agriculture in India must begin with a history of the practices followed here (our own) and borrowed from the west (thrust from outside) starting from the pre green revolution time.

State of agriculture before the second world war:

In the US – Machine driven or Mechanized

In Europe including UK – driven by chemical fertilisers

In Japan – mainly involved irrigation

In India and else where in Asia – Rainfed cultivation using compost

During the colonial days, Sir Albert Howard, M.A.,CIE was brought to India by the British to train Indian peasants the art and science of chemical agriculture. He ended up learning organic farming from the Indian peasants and went on to develop and publish the famous ‘Indore Process’ which was followed widely in the Agriculture world in the 1930s .

During the same time the development of hybrid corn pioneered a new era in agriculture which combined the use of genetics, machines, artificial chemical fertilisers and irrigation to achieve enormous increases in corn yields. It subsequently engulfed other crop varieties including rice.

In the 1940s synthetic chemical pesticides were added to make up the so called technological package in world agriculture.

In the 1990s, the ‘seed’ became the central focal point for all the driving forces that created the agricultural revolutions with the entry of multinational industrial houses into the seed sector.

Leading Agro Biotech Corporations & their Agribusiness,’99.

Corporations Total

Sales Agribusiness Sales Seed

Production Ranking (global) Agro-

Chemical Sales Ranking (global) Pharmaceutical

Sales (their

Original busi.) Research &

DevelopmentInvestments

‘Life Science’ Group ( involved mainly in genetic modification of various crop plants )

Aventis $20.5 billion $4.6 billion n/a 1 $13.9 billion $3 billion

Novartis*

(Syngenta) $20.3 billion $4.4 billion 3 2 $9.8 billion $2.2 billion

Monsanto(98) $ 8.6 billion $4 billion 2 3 $2.8 billion $1.3 billion

AstraZeneca*

(Syngenta) $18.4 billion $2.7 billion 6 5 $14.8 billion $2.9 billion

‘Industrial Science’ Group ( involved mainly in production of various agrochemicals )

Bayer $27 billion $3.1 billion n/a 6 $5 billion $2.1 billion

DuPont** $26.9 billion $3 billion 1 4 $1.6 billion $1.6 billion

Dow $18.9 billion $2.3 billion —— 8 —— $0.85 billion

BASF $29.5 billion $1.7 billion —— 9 $2.5 billion $1.3 billion

The dawn of 1st Green Revolution – introduction of the hybrids, HYVs and Agrochemicals, ACFs & SCPs, in agroecosystems –

The 2nd world war ended sooner than expected. Following the war in the US, there were huge stock piles of war surplus chemicals manufactured to produce the explosives. These were mainly nitrogenous and phosphatic in composition. Scientists were engaged to find out new use for these war surplus chemicals and they located it in the agricultural fields the world over as artificial chemical fertilizers. Other scientists were also engaged to design and generate crop varieties which could consume jumbo doses of these ACFs and nobel laureate Norman Borloug was one of them who produced the “miracle wheat” in Mexico in 1966. He visited India in 1967 and declared, if he was a member of Indian Parliament he would have leapt up from his seat every 15 minutes to yell at the top of his voice ‘ fertilizer’, ‘give the farmers more fertilizer.’

At the beginning of the 1950s, the US foreign policy establishment was reeling from the loss of China to communism and the US was engaged militarily in Korea. The US interests in Asia and the Pacific were also threatened with the rise of revolutions demanding equitable distribution of resources and land reforms etc. The US determined to contain the spread of communism decided to achieve the same not through direct military involvements but through palliative reform measures not directed at feeding Asia’s growing population but for the US business interests. The GATT signed during that period is an example. This went on to give rise the new GATT, WTO, TRIPs, IPR, modification of our own Patents Act and formulation of the PVP Act, National Agriculture Policy etc. throwing our peasantry, agriculture and biodiversity to their eliminations.

Two huge US establishments, the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation were involved in the process from the very beginning. Between them they set up IRRI at Manila in the Philippines in the early 1960s to breed HYV rice varieties in order to increase rice production in Asia. They also helped in the establishment of the CRRI and Agriculture Universities in India in the late 1950s to push through long term US business agenda.

The IRRI generated the ‘miracle rice’ IR-8 and released the same to the Asian farmers in 1966 and thus launched the Green Revolution ( I ) . This, and its early progeny IR- 20 (1969) and IR -24 (1971), rapidly replaced 1000s of diverse native traditional rice varieties as farmers by and large adopted these new varieties as‘seeds of hope’ widely in Asia. Unfortunately their hopes were soon crushed as the miracle rice succumbed to the brown plant hoppers. It was found out that the these uniform susceptible varieties ( IR – 8, IR- 20 and IR- 24) cultivated widely in Asia, gave the brown hoppers an unprecedented feeding ground. Brown plant hoppers also transmitted the grassy stunt virus that destroyed rice crop in 1,20,000 hectare in Indonesia alone in 1977 resulting in food loss to the tune of 2 million tons, that is enough to feed 6 million people.

Among the 1000s of rice accessions maintained at the IRRI’s gene bank only one could stand up to the grassy stunt virus and it was a wild rice called Oryza nivara, collected from Orissa in 1963. O. nivara is otherwise an economically useless variety but it had the character which no other rice variety had. Only 3 plants in the IRRI’s single accession contained a gene that was resistant to grassy stunt virus. This gene was immediately passed over to the IRRI’s new rice varieties including its super star,IR-36, through cross breeding . By 1982, IR-36 alone was cultivated on 11 million hectares of Asia’s rice lands thus acquiring the dubious honour of being the world’s single most widely planted rice variety in history.

However, by the mid 1980s , the resistance provided by O. nivara against stunt virus was breaking down in farmers fields and IRRI’s valuable rice varieties stood as vulnerable as ever leaving its breeders helpless. O. nivara was found to be a metaphor for the problems faced by the rice farmers of Asia. Since IR-8, IRRI has , in fact, transformed the lives, cultures and opportunities of countless local communities who depended on rice for their livelihood. To perform well and yield to their declared potentials, IRRI’s HYV rices required too much chemical inputs, access to credit and irrigation thus giving birth to new forms of social orders. While some benefited from the new rice varieties, a huge majority of the rice farming communities of Asia became

indebted, lost control over their food production systems and became caught in a spire of dependency. When the urban consumers got cheaper though tasteless rice, the rural producerslost the valuable ecological balance in their agroecosystems.

In the Indian context, we find today most of the land in Punjab are

impaired and dead. The minimum level of soil fertility is lost. Most of Punjab’s soil are diseased and dying and this is an openly admitted fact. The consumption of agrochemicals in Punjab has increased thirty folds since the inception of Green Revolution in that state and in India. The total amount of subsidy on ACFs has increased to rupees forty four thousand crores and this subsidy cost in distributed over all Indians including us. Punjab farmers get the benefit and we bear the cost. Between 1971 – 1981, 95% of small farmers of Punjab were lost or disappeared. The rate of profit from agriculture which once stood between 25% – 80%, has now comedown to 6% and yet things continue in the same way. This is one of the major factors for the farmers’ suicides in Punjab, AP and elsewhere in India and it is one of the gifts of the 1st Green Revolution to India.

The other gifts are soil – food and ground water poisoning owning to excessive use of agrochemicals – ACFs and Pesticides. These agrochemicals not only have caused the death and elimination of the natural predators of the agricultural pests but also of the pollinating bees besides the domesticated animals and human beings. Nitrate poisoning caused cattle epidemic in Nagpur in 1976, and it causes blue baby syndrome in human beings.

Pearson(1985) sums up that about 10,000 human beings die every year owing to pesticides in developing countries. Besides these agrochemicals between them help grow the pest population either directly or indirectly. When ACFs make the crop plants soft and tender, the pesticides build up resistances in pests.

The Dawn of the 2nd Green Revolution – the introduction of Genetic Modifications in Crops –

With the growth of a new branch of biological science called Biotechnology, scientists postulated that the same could be exploited for agricultural advantages. Thus, genetically modified (GM) crops such as Bt.Cotton were developed in the early 1990s.Till date over a 100 of them are under cultivation round the earth. It was said that these transgenic crop plants would reduce pesticide dependence, would have the ability to detract, repel or kill the pests and tolerate herbicides, weedicides, fungicides;

another category of agrochemicals developed to be produced and used to combat the weed plants,( all plants other than the crop plants ) and harmful fungi.

It thereby opened doors for additional industries for agriculture. In other words, agriculture was made too much industry dependent; fertilizer, pesticide, weedicide, herbicide, fungicide, nematocides and so on. With the creation of transgenic crops like Bt. Cotton and GM maize like GE crops a new industry entered into the field of agriculture the world over. Thus the place of origin of seeds was taken away from the plants to the scientists laboratories, nullifying Darwin’s laws of natural selection and artificial selection. Thus also, the farmers were reduced to consumer – producers from producers only.

Transgenic crops were accepted by many countries ( if not all ) including India under the impressions that they would ensure food production and prevent crop failure as far as seed quality and pest menaces were concerned. The same is clearly reflected in our own National Agriculture Policy, 2000. But what happened subsequent to that is everybody’s knowledge. Let us examine the case of Bt. Cotton crop in US. According to the chemical used data provided by the US Department of Agriculture, the total million pounds applied between 1946 and 2000 were as under –

1946 = 78 ; 1966 = 64.9 ; 1971 = 73.4 ; 1976 = 64.2 ; 1982 = 19.4 ; 1992 = 19.8 ; 1998 = 14.8*; 2000 = 40.5*.

It is to note that Bt. Cotton was widely cultivated in the US from the year 1996. It, however, failed to reduce crop’s pesticide- dependence in just within 4 years. In India, the cultivation of Bt. Cotton is the single largest factor for the hundreds of farmers’ death in Andhrapradesh and Vidarbha region of Maharastra.

With the origin of GM/GE/Transgenic crops, big multinational industrial houses entered into the seed sector. They wanted to sale their seeds protected by Patent Laws, to farmers every year as their own inventions. This motive is reflected in 2 associated technologies they integrated into the process of such seed generations.

* Terminator Technology (also called TPS or Technologies Protection System –or- GURTs or Generic Use Restriction Technologies) – It is the technique by which the seeds are made male sterile. The technology employed is aimed at preventing the farmers from sowing the seeds from their harvests for the next crops, thus compelling them to buy the seeds for every crop they wish to grow.

* Traitor Technology – It refers to a technology that allows a plants’ genetic traits to be turned ‘ on or off ’ when a certain chemical is applied to the plant or seed. In other words, it is the technology by which sterility is chemically controlled. The industry thus suggests that farmers would be able to activate or deactivate genetic traits such as disease resistance in crop by applying a certain proprietory chemical prescribed by the seed company for the plant or seed that they would have to buy.

The New Threat – arising out of the new terminator technology is a global one and it is against small and marginal farmers, national food security and biodiversity. Over 1.5 billion of our small and marginal farmers ( peasants, in the proper sense) who save their seeds including the HYVs traditionally stand to lose their seed source.

Communities that lose control over their seeds risk losing control over their farming systems and becoming dependent on outside seed sources together with the prescribed proprietory inputs that come along with the seeds. In the changed system where a great majority of the farming communities don’t have access to seed security, food security stand to be disrupted as the same would be impracticable. Hence, our food security will be a myth in the coming days unless we restructure our own system. Fortunately, Indian farmers are encouraged “to save, conserve, exchange and sell their own saved traditional native seeds ( except the branded seeds of protected varieties)” under the Input Management chapter of our National Agriculture Policy, 2000.

In the words of:-

1. Ishopanishad – The universe is the creation of the supreme power meant for the benefit of all his creations. Individual species must, therefore, learn to enjoy its benefits by forming a part of the system in close relationship with one another. Let not only one species encroach upon the others’ rights.

2. Anon – Native biodiversities, a source of pride for each country, composing as it does, a shining part of the national heritage.

3. M.S Swaminathan – Our national food security depends on our ability to conserve all our biological wealth (= biodiversity).

Biodiversity is the degree of biological varieties in nature and not in nature itself. Diversity of species in natural habitats is high in warm moist areas and decrease with increasing latitude and altitude. That is precisely the reason why, tropical moist forests contain half of the worlds’ biological diversity although they occupy only 7% of the worlds’ land area.

Transgenic plants with terminator technology are a direct threat to the biodiversity because there exists a natural phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer between closely grown plants beyond the species, genera and even kingdom barriers. If this happens, countries like ours, rich in biodiversity stand to lose biodiversity soon.

Genetically modified plants have very week immune systems and for that they depend heavily on the application of a chemical designed to uplift their natural defenses against pests and disease. If the fate of the GE crop plants are like this, how can the small and marginal farmers afford to cultivate such plants which demand excessively high cost external inputs for their existence?

In essentiality, GM crops lead to ‘ bioserfdom’ – that is they threaten to hold farmers hostage to multinationals through sterile seeds and chemically dependent plants.

Other facts:-

Transgenic plants produce toxins and allergens owing to genetic modifications. GM Soya cultivated widely in the US and Brazil has such protein in it which is allergic to many human beings. Fibers of Bt. Cotton is found to be allergic to many even in India. So is the case of Bt. Potato, now widely used as potato chips.

Transgenic plants with Bt. gene cause death of Monarch Butterfly larvae. Even pollen grains from Bt. plants are enough to cause their death.

Transgenic crops with Bt. gene consumed by cows and visited by honey bees render their milk and honey contaminated with Bt. protein, now known to be allergic to many human beings.

Terpenoid gossypol is a trait used to make cotton resistant to caterpillar pests. The cotton seed meal from this crop has been found to be poisonous to swine and turn the yolk in chicken eggs darker.

Transgenic corn is not approved for human consumption; it is meant for the cows. A few years ago pollen from the GM corn fields were drifted away to pollute adjacent corn fields leading to digestive problems in the consumers of such corn. It was such incidents that compelled scientists to adopt terminator technology lading to- not solving the problem rather compounding the same.

Independent scientists like Robert Hartley, Jeremy Rifkin etc. have compiled at least 50 harmful effects of GM foods which include soya sauce, pop corn, candy bar, potato chips and have preferred to level terminator technology as thano (=death) technology. They have also leveled such applications of biotechnology as- wreaking havoc with the planet’s biospheres.

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) now widely used as a promoter in transgenic crops, is potentially too dangerous because it is a para retro virus and is very similar to Hepatitis B virus and HIV. In the system of non targeted species (like the vertebrates and human beings), it may (lab. tests have shown so) produce recombinant highly virulent virus that may activate oncogenes and cause cancer. This is the opinion of scientists like Professor Joseph Cummins of the University of West Ontario and a host of other independent scientists. Viral affects of our coconut crop and death of plants in the wild west may be due to CaMV infections.

What should we do now ?

We save our seeds.Under the provisions of the Inputs Management chapter (protection of plant varieties) of the National Agriculture Policy 2000, farmers are “allowed their traditional rights to save, use, exchange, share and sell their farm saved seeds.” Under the provisions of the Sustainable Agriculture chapter (agro biodiversity) farmers have been empowered –”conservation of bio-resources through ex-situ preservation in gene banks, as also in–situ conservation in their natural habitats through biodiversity parks.” These activities have been assured “high priority to prevent biodiversity extinction with emphasis on the importance of conservation of the indigenous breeds facing extinction”. It has been promised “to enlist the country’s vast agro biodiversity in a time bound programme.”

Biodiversity means all the plant and animal resources of the planet; when agro-biodiversity includes all those plants and animals of agricultural importance. It includes animals as earthworms, bees, predatory organisms and plants as green manuring, mixed cropping, trap crop and agro-forestry. These were more or less known well to the Indian farmers before 1960s. The green manuring plants, dhaincha (Sesbania), sun hemp (Crotolaria) and Gliricidia are good in kharif and Azolla, senji (Melilorus) and gour (Cyamposis) are good in rabi. Between them they on decomposition, enrich the soil with 60 – 200 kg Nitrogen per hectare in 45 – 60 days. Trap crops protect the main crops like cabbage by mustard, corn by sorghum cotton by corn, groundnut by corn pea and tomato by marigold. In the words of Masanobu Fukuoka, ‘ human salvation lies in returning to nature; the ecological devastation must be reversed before it is too late’.

As far as rice is concerned, all indigenous varieties are not poor yielder, a mistake made by the proponents of the Green Revolutions in this country. They failed to appreciate the fact that some of the natives were better high yielding themselves. Dr.R.H. Richaria, an Internationally renowned Indian rice scientist was known to have documented some such HY – natives, selected and improved through peasants and indigenous people of India which could outmatch and outweigh the best yielding rice HYVs. This was done by Dr. Richaria at least 15 years before the launch of the Green Revolution. Richaria’s highest yield was 54 quintals per acre or 13.6 tons per hectare achieved in Salem and the lowest yield was 24 quintals per acre or 6 tons per hectare achieved in West Bengal from his indigenous improved rice varieties (the basis of cultivation not being known). The presenter himself achieved 28 quintals per acre organically in the fields of a peasant at Mayurbhanj in kharif of 2004-05, using internal inputs only.

Many of the Indian rice varieties have known medicinal properties which have been traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani systems of medicine and by traditional healers for generations. As per Ayurveda some native Chhattisgarh rice varieties have such medicinal values as tonic aphrodisiac, curative of dysentery, curative in skin infections, useful in the treatment of rheumatism, early removal of placenta in cow after delivery and rice water, an excellent healer of inflammatory disorders. These rice varieties are known locally as – Laicha, Bhejari and Dhanwar. Meharaji, another native rice, has been used as tonic for women after child birth. Saraiphool is known to provide strength to the physically weak persons, Karhani gives relief in case of paralysis. Inhalation of fumes of rice bran of Baisur cure headache and Rasari is used in the treatment of chronic cough. This is widely known among the village elders in Chhattisgarh.

Besides rice grains, soil of rice growing fields are also known to be of medicinal use in Chhattisgarh. The rice soil of Chhattisgarh are of 3 major types – Kanhar (Vertisols); Dorsa (Alfisols) and Matasi (Inceptisols). Such soils are also used in the treatment of over 30 acute and 10 chronic ailments.

Literature is available to show that other countries in south east Asia also exploited the medicinal values of their native rice varieties. Rice bran is known to contain Vitamin – B which cures beriberi. In Malayasia aqueous extracts of boiled green rice is used in eye as a lotion and in the treatment of inflammations of inner body tissues. In China sprouted rice grains are used as digestive stimulant, give tone to muscles and as antiflatulant. The Chinese also believe rice as healer of spleen infections.

Njavara, the unique short duration (60 – 70 days) land rice of Kerala is valued highly for its medicinal properties. This rice strain is aromatic, sweet to taste, easily digestible and has germicidal properties and this is why it is mostly used in treatment only and hardly eaten except in exigency. Njavara rice is used in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, neurological disorders and as muscle relaxant by the Ayurvedic physicians.

The presenter was also requested to send some amount of a 60 day paddy (Sathia) to a person in Mumbai for the treatment of an old age person in 2004 and later learnt that the patient got relief.

Some native rice varieties of India and abroad are known to contain substantial amounts of allolochemicals which when released through their leaf, root and pollen restrict the growth and development of other plants (weeds). Such native Indian rice varieties have been documented as Bala, Dular, India AC –1423 and IET – 1444. Japan has one such variety called Novin -29 , and the US has 2 such varieties, Cuba – 6558A and Cuba – 65V58.

In view of the above, it is essential to conserve the different traits of rice varieties so evolved through the combined process of natural selections and artificial selections in different ecoclimatic conditions over the centuries with their fragrance, taste, medicinal and high yielding properties. It is essentially the same for other crops also. Besides, the all important seed has entered into a regime of company monopoly. Farmers have to save their own seeds for the sake of ensured crop and food security. Seed security is more important than food security. If farmers do not save their own seeds urgently they are sure to fall in to trap of the big multinational seed companies and from which they cannot move out. If this happens, all Indians will be reduced to laboratory guinea pigs in the hands of the multinational seed companies very soon.

The necessity to conserve the different rice varieties so adapted to different eco-climatic conditions, important to and now available with the farmers has no doubt stirred them most. They have already started the process. Sri R.K.Behera of Bhandeswar in Balasore and Sri B.Dwivedy of Tentala in Mayurbhanj have conserved 18 & 17 native & nativised rice varieties respectively. Navdanya-PPBSA, Balasore has conserved over 550 rice strains, natives and nativised, till date. Seeds of these varieties are selectively donated to affected farmers in disaster areas like in Erasama, Nandigram (WB) and Nagapattinam(TN) as “seeds of hope,” Navdanya’s disaster management programme.

Another need of the time is sustainability in agriculture which can be achieved only when the farmer strictly avoids all purchased external inputs and relies extensively on farm generated internal inputs, there by reducing the market dependence for growing the crop or crops. The change in system will have to ensure proper maintenance of ecological balance and basic biological functions of soil- water – humus – nutrients continuum. For that the farmer has to abandon the current practice of monoculture of crops and switch over to polyculture, agro forestry, green manuring and integrated crop-live stock system.

Dependence on biodiversity, adoption of vermin technology for enhancing soil fertility and biological – botanical control of pests and diseases are of paramount importance in such a system. It will thus nourish and resuscitate the dying or dead soil, improve the environment, reduce pollution of food and water and generate tasty, healthy and abundant food.

About the Author

Author is an avid natrure analyst,has worked on & written books,research papers and short & large articles on several aspects of the nature such as farming,forest,food and water etc.

eBay Logo  

A5521aps Animals South African Shelduck postcard


A5521aps Animals South African Shelduck postcard


$0.00


A4799 UK London The Guildhall postcard


A4799 UK London The Guildhall postcard


$0.00


A6349aps UK The Laboratory Horticuluturacl Society Wisley Surrey postcard


A6349aps UK The Laboratory Horticuluturacl Society Wisley Surrey postcard


$0.00


A5440aps Flowers Sculptural Fountain by Humphrey Bowden postcard


A5440aps Flowers Sculptural Fountain by Humphrey Bowden postcard


$0.00


A2093cgt Australia V Byramine Homestead Yarrawonga postcard


A2093cgt Australia V Byramine Homestead Yarrawonga postcard


$0.00


A5462aps Animals Red Devon Heifer Cow Dorset postcard


A5462aps Animals Red Devon Heifer Cow Dorset postcard


$0.00


A1924apsLC UK Edinburgh Historic Houses postcard


A1924apsLC UK Edinburgh Historic Houses postcard


$0.00


A2532 Australia NSW Shaws Bay Ballina postcard


A2532 Australia NSW Shaws Bay Ballina postcard


$0.00


A5413aps Animals Golden Labrador dog postcard


A5413aps Animals Golden Labrador dog postcard


$0.00


A3985aps Russia postcard


A3985aps Russia postcard


$0.00


DEAN Natural Series A/E Cutaway Dreadnought GUITAR new Tobacco Sunburst w/ APHEX


DEAN Natural Series A/E Cutaway Dreadnought GUITAR new Tobacco Sunburst w/ APHEX


$0.00


Balloon Flying Handbook: FAA-H-8083-11A Federal Aviation Administration (Corpora


Balloon Flying Handbook: FAA-H-8083-11A Federal Aviation Administration (Corpora


$0.00


The GAA: A People's History by Mike Cronin Hcover NEW


The GAA: A People’s History by Mike Cronin Hcover NEW


$0.00


A2190cgt Australia WA Perth Skyline from King's Park postcard


A2190cgt Australia WA Perth Skyline from King’s Park postcard


$0.00


A3859cgt Norway Oslo Harbour and Town Hall postcard


A3859cgt Norway Oslo Harbour and Town Hall postcard


$0.00


Principles Political Economy-Considered a View Their Pract-Thomas Robert Malthus


Principles Political Economy-Considered a View Their Pract-Thomas Robert Malthus


$0.00


A4012pac Humour Australian Cockatoo Fair dinkum Aussie postcard


A4012pac Humour Australian Cockatoo Fair dinkum Aussie postcard


$0.00


A4549aps Germany Karlsruhe Water Fountain postcard


A4549aps Germany Karlsruhe Water Fountain postcard


$0.00


A4908cgt UK The Study Abbotsford postcard


A4908cgt UK The Study Abbotsford postcard


$0.00


A5456aps Animals Exmoor Ponies Horse foal postcard


A5456aps Animals Exmoor Ponies Horse foal postcard


$0.00


A2302cgt Australia NSW Sydney Opera House postcard


A2302cgt Australia NSW Sydney Opera House postcard


$0.00


A2507htm New Zealand Wellington Salvation Army Home vintage postcard


A2507htm New Zealand Wellington Salvation Army Home vintage postcard


$0.00


A3748aps Monaco Monte Carlo Beach  postcard


A3748aps Monaco Monte Carlo Beach postcard


$0.00


A3997aps Malaysia Government Building Johore Bahru postcard


A3997aps Malaysia Government Building Johore Bahru postcard


$0.00


A2422cgt Australia NSW Broken Hill Multiview Silverton postcard


A2422cgt Australia NSW Broken Hill Multiview Silverton postcard


$0.00


A6219APS Transport Paddle Steamer 'Waverley' postcard


A6219APS Transport Paddle Steamer ‘Waverley’ postcard


$0.00


A5583aps UK Tunbridge Wells Multiview postcard


A5583aps UK Tunbridge Wells Multiview postcard


$0.00


A6229pac UK Ireland Waterville Ring of Kerry postcard


A6229pac UK Ireland Waterville Ring of Kerry postcard


$0.00


A5475aps Animals Penguins in Pool Birland Zoo Gardens postcard


A5475aps Animals Penguins in Pool Birland Zoo Gardens postcard


$0.00


A6437APS UK Gnomes Garden Blackgang Chine IOW postcard


A6437APS UK Gnomes Garden Blackgang Chine IOW postcard


$0.00


A6624aps Transport Garden Seat Horse Omnibus postcard


A6624aps Transport Garden Seat Horse Omnibus postcard


$0.00


A6330aps UK South Devon Multiview Postcard


A6330aps UK South Devon Multiview Postcard


$0.00


A5398aps Dogs Golden Retriever dog Postcard


A5398aps Dogs Golden Retriever dog Postcard


$0.00


Make Me a Match: The Complete Guide to Using a Modern Matchmaker to Find True Lo


Make Me a Match: The Complete Guide to Using a Modern Matchmaker to Find True Lo


$0.00


A4871cgt UK Westminter Cathedral (exterior) London postcard


A4871cgt UK Westminter Cathedral (exterior) London postcard


$0.00


A3987cgt Russia Bolshoi Theatre Moscow postcard


A3987cgt Russia Bolshoi Theatre Moscow postcard


$0.00


A3862 Norway Traditional costume of Voss postcard


A3862 Norway Traditional costume of Voss postcard


$0.00


A4600aps Greece Athens Erechthelon postcard


A4600aps Greece Athens Erechthelon postcard


$0.00


A4588 Gibraltar Rosia Bay Ships at anchor postcard


A4588 Gibraltar Rosia Bay Ships at anchor postcard


$0.00


A5624aps UK Tower of London Multiview postcard


A5624aps UK Tower of London Multiview postcard


$0.00


What's Behind the Numbers?-A Guide to Exposing Financial Chicanery an-Tom Jacobs


What’s Behind the Numbers?-A Guide to Exposing Financial Chicanery an-Tom Jacobs


$0.00


A5493aps Flowers Harlow Car Gardens Harrogate postcard


A5493aps Flowers Harlow Car Gardens Harrogate postcard


$0.00


A1844cgt Japan Kinkakuji Temple SS Sadu Maru Ship vintage postcard


A1844cgt Japan Kinkakuji Temple SS Sadu Maru Ship vintage postcard


$0.00


Hundreds of Tiny Deep Dark PURPLE Uruguay Amethyst Crystals in a Cluster !


Hundreds of Tiny Deep Dark PURPLE Uruguay Amethyst Crystals in a Cluster !


$0.00


TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA TURTLES #20 - Cover A - New Bagged


TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA TURTLES #20 – Cover A – New Bagged


$0.00


A4796cgt UK Hove Parade Brighton postcard


A4796cgt UK Hove Parade Brighton postcard


$0.00


A4853cgt UK The Harbour Lynmouth postcard


A4853cgt UK The Harbour Lynmouth postcard


$0.00


A4785 UK Hampton Palace Garden postcard


A4785 UK Hampton Palace Garden postcard


$0.00


A4788 UK Holiday Inn Plymouth c1973 postcard


A4788 UK Holiday Inn Plymouth c1973 postcard


$0.00


A6222pac UK Ireland Irish Blacksmith Forge postcard


A6222pac UK Ireland Irish Blacksmith Forge postcard


$0.00


Butterfly and Larvae, from 'British Entomology'


Butterfly and Larvae, from ‘British Entomology’


$49.99


Butterfly and Larvae, from ‘British Entomology’ Giclee Print by John Curtis. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Braconid Wasp Larvae Parasitize a Butterfly Caterpillar


Braconid Wasp Larvae Parasitize a Butterfly Caterpillar


$39.99


Braconid Wasp Larvae Parasitize a Butterfly Caterpillar Photographic Print by Darlyne A. Murawski. Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Maculinea Arion Butterfly Larva Eats Myrmica Sabuleti Ant Larvae


Maculinea Arion Butterfly Larva Eats Myrmica Sabuleti Ant Larvae


$39.99


Maculinea Arion Butterfly Larva Eats Myrmica Sabuleti Ant Larvae Photographic Print by Darlyne A. Murawski. Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

The Origins of Larvae


The Origins of Larvae


$164.35


Many biological facts are irreconcilable with the assumption that larvae and adults evolved from the same genetic stock. The author of this book draws attention to these, and presents his alternative hypothesis that larvae have been transferred from one taxon to another. In his previous book (Larvae and Evolution, 1992), the author used larval transfer to explain developmental anomalies in eight animal phyla. In the present book, he claims that the basic forms of all larvae and all embryos have been transferred from foreign taxa. This leads to a new, comprehensive theory on the origin of embryos and larvae, replacing the discredited ‘recapitulation’ theory of Haeckel (1866). Metamorphosis, previously unexplained, represents a change in taxon during development.

Hand-Crafted Butterfly Kites for Sale, Gianyar, Indonesia


Hand-Crafted Butterfly Kites for Sale, Gianyar, Indonesia


$29.99


Hand-Crafted Butterfly Kites for Sale, Gianyar, Indonesia Photographic Print by Paul Beinssen. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Moths, Caterpillars and Larvae


Moths, Caterpillars and Larvae


$24.99


Moths, Caterpillars and Larvae Premium Poster by F.W. Kuhnert. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Larvae of the Striped Bass


Larvae of the Striped Bass


$39.99


Larvae of the Striped Bass Photographic Print by . Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Unknown Beetle Larvae


Unknown Beetle Larvae


$34.99


George Grall Unknown Beetle Larvae – Photographic Print

Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae


Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae


$51.49


In our own juvenile stage, many of us received our wide-eyed introduction to the wonders of nature by watching the metamorphosis of swimming tadpoles into leaping frogs and toads. The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as molecular systematics, animal behavior, and evolutionary biology have focused enormous attention on tadpoles. Despite this popular and scientific interest, relatively little is known about these fascinating creatures. In this indispensable reference, leading experts on tadpole biology relate what we currently know about tadpoles and what we might learn from them in the future. "Tadpoles" provides detailed summaries of tadpole morphology, development, behavior, ecology, and environmental physiology; explores the evolutionary consequences of the tadpole stage; synthesizes available information on their biodiversity; and presents a standardized terminology and an exhaustive literature review of tadpole biology.

Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae


Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae


$273.59


This is the first book to provide a detailed treatment of the field of larval ecology. The 13 chapters use state-of-the-art reviews and critiques of nearly all of the major topics in this diverse and rapidly growing field. Topics include: patterns of larval diversity reproductive energetics spawning ecology life history theory larval feeding and nutrition larval mortality behavior and locomotion larval transport dispersal population genetics recruitment dynamics larval evolution Written by the leading new scientists in the field, chapters define the current state of larval ecology and outline the important questions for future research.

The Larvae of the Gall Miges


The Larvae of the Gall Miges


$250.9


The characteristics of all main groups of soil-bound insects are given in this book.

Hot Sale Butterfly Style Retro Earrings for Women (Black)


Hot Sale Butterfly Style Retro Earrings for Women (Black)


$2.49


For: Women Type: Earrings Style: Fashionable Jewelry Color: Black Material: Alloy Wearing Method: Pierced Dimensions (cm): 6.3 x 5 x 0.5 Weight (kg): 0.01 Package Contents: 1 Pair of Earrings

Sale


Sale


$49.99


Sale Giclee Print by Dale Kennington. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Not for Sale


Not for Sale


$3.95


Lucas Vieira needs a translator to seal a high-profile business deal, and also a woman to pose as his girlfriend to fend off a colleague’s overeager wife–so why not kill two birds with one stone? Linguist Caroline Hamilton jumps at the chance to earn some decent money. But when she meets her client, she realizes she may be out of her league. The powerful Brazilian seems to be interested in "more" than just her brains…. Is the price of this passion too high?

No Sale


No Sale


$4.95


For Victor Cox, a professor of film history, the Hollywood "films noirs" of the 1940s and 1950s are more real than his daily life. When his wife is found drowned, Cox is the first murder suspect. He falls in love with a student who looks like the 1920s film star Louise Brooks, but she disappears at a Belgian seaside resort. Smeared in lipstick in their hotel room are the words "No Sale," the same words Elizabeth Taylor wrote on a mirror in "Butterfield 8." Subsequently, a series of gruesome killings of young women, all modeled on violent deaths in films that he knows and loves, lead the police back to Cox, who starts to doubt his own sanity and innocence. With its stylish writing, pointed references to cinema classics, and blend of horror and humor, this is a powerful psychological thriller. It won the Diamond Bullet Award, the Edgar Award for Belgium. ‘We all know about life imitating art, but what about novels imitating film–film noir in particular? Patrick Conrad’s No Sale (the words written in lipstick on a mirror by Gloria Wandrous, the Elizabeth Taylor character in Butterfield 8) is only the latest in a short list of crime fiction that draws on film noir for both plot and mood. It makes a peculiar kind of fictional sense that characters obsessed with film noir would find the worlds of the films they adore superimposed upon their personal lives. Make sure your subscription to Netflix is up-to-date before sampling this hypnotic novel.’ Booklist ‘Imagine a metafiction serial-killer thriller written by Paul Auster on speed.When even the investigating cop sees himself as Dirty Harry, this amusing, teasing, film-crazy novel keeps you guessing through every reel.’ Crime Time Patrick Conrad, born in 1945 in Antwerp, is a Flemish poet, screenwriter, film director, and novelist. He lives in Provence, in the south of France. "Limousine, " a previous novel, is being made into a film with Kelsey Grammar, to be released in 2012.

The Sale


The Sale


$49.99


The Sale Giclee Print by Auguste Serrure. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

A Sesp Worker Checking the Mosquito Larvae


A Sesp Worker Checking the Mosquito Larvae


$89.99


A Sesp Worker Checking the Mosquito Larvae Premium Photographic Print by . Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Fish in Tank Eating Mosquito Larvae


Fish in Tank Eating Mosquito Larvae


$89.99


Fish in Tank Eating Mosquito Larvae – Premium Photographic Print

Two Assasin Wheel Bug Larvae


Two Assasin Wheel Bug Larvae


$34.99


George Grall Two Assasin Wheel Bug Larvae – Photographic Print

Larvae of the Summer Mosquito (Aedes Atlanticus)


Larvae of the Summer Mosquito (Aedes Atlanticus)


$29.99


Larvae of the Summer Mosquito (Aedes Atlanticus) Photographic Print by Rick Poley. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

The Butterfly Is Me!


The Butterfly Is Me!


$14.48


This book is a compilation of inspirational poems written by Margaret "Peg" Stanton after being diagnosed with a rare and aggressive form of cancer called inflammatory breast cancer. During her illness, Peg began a spiritual journey to help her find the inner peace and strength neccessary to come to terms with having a terminal illness. It was on this journey of spiritual enlightenment that Peg embraced the butterfly as her symbol of strength and wrote the poems found in this book. Peg, a loving mother and devoted friend and teacher, lost her courageous battle with cancer on January 23, 2005. Please enjoy these poems and may you find the inspiration she hoped it would provide. A portion of the proceeds from the sale of this book will go to various breast cancer oganizations.

Apples Showing Damage Caused by Moth Larvae


Apples Showing Damage Caused by Moth Larvae


$89.99


Apples Showing Damage Caused by Moth Larvae Premium Photographic Print by . Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Insect Larvae Sold at a Market for Food and Snacks


Insect Larvae Sold at a Market for Food and Snacks


$39.99


Insect Larvae Sold at a Market for Food and Snacks Photographic Print by Eightfish . Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Clouded Crimson Larvae Spring Creek Prairie


Clouded Crimson Larvae Spring Creek Prairie


$34.99


Clouded Crimson Larvae Spring Creek Prairie Photographic Print by Joel Sartore. Product size approximately 9 x 12 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Glochidia Larvae of the Venus Clam, LM X35


Glochidia Larvae of the Venus Clam, LM X35


$29.99


Glochidia Larvae of the Venus Clam, LM X35 Photographic Print by Biodisc. Product size approximately 18 x 24 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

A Herring Larvae Among Copepods and Other Microscopic Life


A Herring Larvae Among Copepods and Other Microscopic Life


$39.99


A Herring Larvae Among Copepods and Other Microscopic Life Photographic Print by Bill Curtsinger. Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Close View of Midge Larvae Feeding on Microbes


Close View of Midge Larvae Feeding on Microbes


$39.99


Close View of Midge Larvae Feeding on Microbes Photographic Print by Stephen Alvarez. Product size approximately 12 x 16 inches. Available at Art.com. Embrace your Space – your source for high quality fine art posters and prints.

Black Carpenter Ants with Larvae and Pupa (Camponotus Pennsylvanicus)


Black Carpenter Ants with Larvae and Pupa (Camponotus Pennsylvanicus)


$29.99


David Wrobel Black Carpenter Ants with Larvae and Pupa (Camponotus Pennsylvanicus) – Photographic Print

Confocal Micrograph of the Parasitic Wasp Larvae of Leptopilina Boulardi


Confocal Micrograph of the Parasitic Wasp Larvae of Leptopilina Boulardi


$29.99


Robert Markus Confocal Micrograph of the Parasitic Wasp Larvae of Leptopilina Boulardi – Photographic Print

The Clothes Moth (Tinea Pelleonella) and its Larvae


The Clothes Moth (Tinea Pelleonella) and its Larvae


$49.99


The Clothes Moth (Tinea Pelleonella) and its Larvae – Giclee Print

A Bess Beetle, Odontotaenius Disjunctus, Adult and Larvae


A Bess Beetle, Odontotaenius Disjunctus, Adult and Larvae


$39.99


George Grall A Bess Beetle, Odontotaenius Disjunctus, Adult and Larvae – Photographic Print


Be Sociable, Share!

Comments are closed.



Subscribe to our Newsletter